The federal government has recognized fundamental research as “basic and applied research in science and engineering where the resulting information is to be shared broadly within the scientific community” (National Security Decision Directive 189). Restricted or classified research produces results that are not shared broadly. Fundamental research is not subject to export controls when conducted within the borders of the United States. However, fundamental research of any kind occurring abroad is subject to export controls if restricted equipment, software, or information is shipped outside the United States.
Export controls are restrictions imposed by the federal government on access to, dissemination of, and transfers of some equipment, software, and data.